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Chicago Manual of Style

Chicago Notes and Bibliography (NB) Style

For Notes and Bibliography Style, use the "Full Note" format the first time a source is cited in-text, and the "Shortened Note" format for subsequent in-text citations (updating page numbers when necessary). If the same source is cited two or more times in a row on one page, you can use "Ibid." in place of the author and title information. Use the formats for "Bibliography Entry" in the bibliography.


Article (Template)

Full Note:

First name Last name and First name Last name, "Article Title," Journal Title volume #, no. issue # (year): page #.

Shortened Note:

Last name and Last nameShortened Article Title, page #. 

Bibliography Entry:

Last name, First name, and First name Last name. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume #, no. issue # (year): first page # – last page #.


Article with DOI

Full Note:

Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts,"Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network," American Journal of Sociology 115, no. 2 (2009): 407. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Shortened Note:

Kossinets and Watts, "Origins of Homophily," 409.

Bibliography Entry:

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. "Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network." American Journal of Sociology 115, no. 2 (2009): 405-50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.


Article without DOI: Use URL

Full Note:

Frank P. Whitney, “The Six-Year High School in Cleveland,” School Review 37, no. 4 (1929): 268. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1076243.

Shortened Note:

Whitney, "The Six-Year High School," 272.

Bibliography Entry:

Whitney, Frank P. “The Six – Year High School in Cleveland.” School Review 37, no. 4 (1929): 267-71. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1076243.


More than 10 authors

For sources with UP TO 10 authors, list all names in the same manner as described above. 

For Notes and Bibliography Style, use the "Full Note" format the first time a source is cited in-text, and the "Shortened Note" format for subsequent in-text citations (updating page numbers when necessary). If the same source is cited two or more times in a row on one page, you can use "Ibid." in place of the author and title information. Use the formats for "Bibliography Entry" in the bibliography.


Book (Template)

Full Note:
First name Last name and First name Last name, Book Title #th ed. (Location: Publisher, Year), page # - page #.

Shortened Note:

Last name and Last name, Shortened Book Title, page #.

Bibliography Entry:

Last name, First name, and First name Last name. Book Title #th ed. Location: Publisher, year.


Book by a Single Author

Full Note:

Fred Lerner, The Story of Libraries: From the Invention of Writing to the Computer Age, 2nd ed. (New York: Continuum, 2009), 12-13.

Shortened Note:

Lerner, The Story of Libraries, 15.

Bibliography Entry:

Lerner, Fred. The Story of Libraries: From the Invention of Writing to the Computer Age, 2nd ed. New York: Continuum, 2009.


Book by Multiple Editors 

Include "ed." or "eds." after the name(s) of listed editor(s) in the author position.

Full Note: 

Sue-Ellen Jacobs, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang, eds., Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality (Urbana: University of Illinois Press 1997), 35.

Shortened Note:

Jacobs, Thomas, and Lang, Two-Spirit People, 46-47.

Bibliography Entry:

Jacobs, Sue-Ellen, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang, eds. Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.


Four to Ten Authors

Include only the first listed author with "et al." in all notes, and all authors up to 10 names in the bibliography entry.

Full Note:

Jeri A. Sechzer et al., Women and Mental Health (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1996), 7-12.

Shortened Note:

Sechzer et al., Women and Mental Health, 20.

Bibliography Entry:

Sechzer, Jeri A., Sheila M. Pfafflin, Florence L. Denmark, Anna Griffin, and Susan J. Blumenthal. Women and Mental Health. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1996. 


No Author

If a book has no author, use the title in the author position.

Full Note:

A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced (London, 1610), 4.

Shortened Note:

A True and Sincere Declaration, 14.

Bibliography Entry:

A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced. London, 1610. 


Chapter in an Edited Book

List the chapter author and chapter title first, followed by the full book title and the editor of the book.

Full Note:

Elizabeth F. L. Ellet, "By Rail and Stage to Galena," In Prairie State: Impressions of Illinois, 1673-1967, by Travelers and Other Observers, ed. Paul M. Angle, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), 272-73.

Shortened Note:

Ellet, "By Rail and Stage," 276.

Bibliography Entry:

Ellet, Elizabeth F. L. "By Rail and Stage to Galena." In Prairie State: Impressions of Illinois, 1673-1967, by Travelers and Other Observers, edited by Paul M. Angle, 271-79. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968. 


Ebooks

Full Note:

Herman Melville, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), 627, http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.

Shortened Note:

Melville, Moby Dick, 629-30.

Bibliography Entry:

Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851. http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.

For Notes and Bibliography Style, use the "Full Note" format the first time a source is cited in-text, and the "Shortened Note" format for subsequent in-text citations (updating page numbers when necessary). If the same source is cited two or more times in a row on one page, you can use "Ibid." in place of the author and title information. Use the formats for "Bibliography Entry" in the bibliography.


Webpage (Template)

Full Note:

First name Last name or Corporation Name, "Webpage Title," Website Title, last modified or accessed date, http://www.URL.com.  

Shortened Note:

Last name or Corporation Name, "Shortened Webpage Title."

Bibliography Entry:

Last name, First name or Corporation Name. "Webpage Title." Website Title. Last modified or accessed date, http://www.URL.com.


Corporate Author on Website

Full Note:

Google, "Privacy Policy," Privacy and Terms, last modified March 31, 2014, http://www.google.ca/policies/privacy/.

Shortened Note:

Google, "Privacy Policy."

Bibliography Entry:

Google. "Privacy Policy." Privacy and Terms. Last modified March 31, 2014, http://www.google.ca/policies/privacy/.


Document from a website

Full Note:

Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, eds., "ANF01. The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr and Irenaeus: Introductory Note to the Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus," CCEL, Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Accessed April 23, 2011, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.iii.i.html. 

Shortened Note:

Roberts and Donaldson, "ANF01."

Bibliography Entry:

Roberts, Alexander, and James Donaldson, eds. "ANF01. The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr and Irenaeus: Introductory Note to the Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus." CCEL, Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Accessed April 23, 2011, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.iii.i.html. 

For Notes and Bibliography Style, use the "Full Note" format the first time a source is cited in-text, and the "Shortened Note" format for subsequent in-text citations (updating page numbers when necessary). If the same source is cited two or more times in a row on one page, you can use "Ibid." in place of the author and title information. Use the formats for "Bibliography Entry" in the bibliography.


Visual Media (Template)

Full Note:

First name Last name, role,Title of Work, Directed/Performed by First name Last name (Original Release Year; City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year), Medium. 

Shortened Note:

Last name, Shortened Title of Work.

Bibliography Entry:

Last name, First name, role. Title of Work. Format. Directed/Performed by First name Last name. Original Release Year; City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year. Medium. 


Film

Full Note:

Alfonso Cuaron, dir., Gravity (2013; Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Pictures, 2014), Blu-ray Disc, 1080p HD.

Shortened Note:

Cuaron, Gravity.

Bibliography Entry:

Cuaron, Alfonso, dir. Gravity. 2013; Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Pictures, 2014. Blu-ray Disc, 1080p HD.


T.V. Episodes

Full Note:

Friends, "The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy," season 3, episode 1. Directed by Gail Mancuso, aired September 19, 1996. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video. 

Shortened Note:

Friends, "The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy."

Bibliography Entry:

Friends. "The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy."  Season 3, episode 1. Directed by Gail Mancuso. Aired September 19, 1996. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video. 


Online Multimedia

Full Note:

John Harwood, "The Pros and Cons of Biden," New York Times video, 2:00. August 23, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/video/us/politics/1194817091987/the-pros-and-cons-of-biden.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3Aw. 

Shortened Note:

Harwood, "The Pros and Cons."

Bibliography Entry:

Harwood, John. "The Pros and Cons of Biden." New York Times video, 2:00. August 23, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/video/us/politics/1194817091987/the-pros-and-cons-of-biden.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3Aw. 

For Notes and Bibliography Style, use the "Full Note" format the first time a source is cited in-text, and the "Shortened Note" format for subsequent in-text citations (updating page numbers when necessary). If the same source is cited two or more times in a row on one page, you can use "Ibid." in place of the author and title information. Use the formats for "Bibliography Entry" in the bibliography.


Individual Recording (Sample)

Full Note:

First name Last name, "Recording Title," Date of Recording, Format, Length. Source of Recording. URL.

Shortened Note:

Last name, "Shortened Title."

Bibliography Entry

Truman, Harry S. "First Speech to Congress." April 16, 1945. Transcript and Adobe Flash audio, 18:13. Miller Centre of Public Affairs: University of Virginia. http://millercenter.org/scripps/archive/speeches/detail/3339. 


Recording

Full Note:

Harry S Truman, "First Speech to Congress," April 16, 1945, Transcript and Adobe Flash audio, 18:13. Miller Centre of Public Affairs: University of Virginia. http://millercenter.org/scripps/archive/speeches/detail/3339. 

Shortened Note:

Truman, "First Speech to Congress."

Bibliography Entry

Truman, Harry S. "First Speech to Congress." April 16, 1945. Transcript and Adobe Flash audio, 18:13. Miller Centre of Public Affairs: University of Virginia. http://millercenter.org/scripps/archive/speeches/detail/3339. 


Song on an Album

Full Note:

Gordon Downie, Ahead by a Century,” recorded April 1996, track 3 on Trouble at the Henhouse, MCA, Compact Disc.

Shortened Note:

Downie, "Ahead by a Century."

Bibliography Entry:

Downie, Gordon. Ahead by a Century.” Recorded April 1996, track 3 on Trouble at the Henhouse, MCA, Compact Disc.


Entire Album

Full Note:

Pink Floyd. Atom Heart Mother. Capitol CDP 7 46381 2, 1990, compact disc. Originally released in 1970. 

Shortened Note:

Pink Floyd, Atom Heart Mother.

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Pink Floyd. Atom Heart Mother. Capitol CDP 7 46381 2, 1990, compact disc. Originally released in 1970. 


 

For Notes and Bibliography Style, use the "Full Note" format the first time a source is cited in-text, and the "Shortened Note" format for subsequent in-text citations (updating page numbers when necessary). If the same source is cited two or more times in a row on one page, you can use "Ibid." in place of the author and title information. Use the formats for "Bibliography Entry" in the bibliography.


Magazine/Newspaper Article (Template):

Note: the URL is only needed for online articles.

Full Note:

First name Last name, "Title of Article," Magazine/Newspaper Name, Published Date, http://www.URL.com. 

Shortened Note:

Last name, "Shortened Title of Article."

Bibliography Entry: 

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Magazine/Newspaper Name. Published Date. http://www.URL.com. 


Magazine Article

Full Note:

Michael Frank, "La Concha Revival: San Juan's Tropical Modernist Gem Makes a Comeback," Architectural Digest, August 2009, 103.

Shortened Note:

Frank, "La Concha Revival," 104.

Bibliography Entry:

Frank, Michael. "La Concha Revival: San Juan's Tropical Modernist Gem Makes a Comeback." Architectural Digest. August 2009. 103-4. 


Online Magazine Article

Full Note:

Coco Masters, "The Takeaway Diet of 2006," Time, December 17, 2006. 

http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1570794,00.html.

Shortened Note:

Masters, "The Takeaway Diet."

Bibliography Entry:

Masters, Coco. "The Takeaway Diet of 2006." Time December 17, 2006. 

http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1570794,00.html.

Newspaper (print): Add URL if found online

Full Note:

Pat Borzi, "Retirement Discussion Begins Anew for Favre," New York Times, January 25, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/26/sports/football/26vikings.html?emc=etal

Shortened Note:

Borzi, "Retirement Discussion."

Bibliography Entry:

Borzi, Pat. "Retirement Discussion Begins Anew for Favre." New York Times, January 25, 2010.  http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/26/sports/football/26vikings.html?emc=etal. 

 

Instructions for citing images:

Images should be cited in a caption below the image itself. Label it with "Figure #" or "Fig. #" 

Remember to cite the source you are using. If you are looking at the image in a book, cite that book. If you are looking at the original work, cite the original work. 

Image from a Database (Template)

Fig. 1. Artist first and last name, Title of work. Year of original art, Medium (e.g. Oil on canvas, drawing, sculpture, photograph, etc.), Measurements (e.g. 18.5 x 12 cm). Location of original museum, province, country. Available from: Database name, www.URL.com (accessed month day, year).


Print Resource Template (e.g., an image printed in a book):

Figure 1. Author first and last name, Title of work. Year of original work, medium, dimensions. From: Author of book, Title of book. City: Publisher, year. Page or plate number.


Examples

Database (ARTstor)

Fig. 1. Cuthbert Brodrick, Plan of Leeds town hall. 1852-58, drawing. Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. Available from: ARTstore, http://www.artstor.org (Accessed October 14, 2015).


Print Resource

Database: Fig. 1. Rogier van der Weyden, Saint Catherine of Alexandria. 1430-1432, Diptych panel, 18.5 x 12 cm. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria. Available from ARTstor, http://artstor.org (accessed September 30, 2009)


Website

Fig. 1. Kostyantyn Steblovskyy. Swanlike End. 2015, Digital Image. Available from: National Geographic. http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-of-the-day/swan-lake-bled/ (Accessed October 14, 2015).


Book

Fig. 1. Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Young girl and a cow at Saint-Briac. From Judy Le Paul Gaugin and the Impressionists at Pont-Aven. New York: Abbevill Press. 1987. Page 137.

Note: for books you will put the year of the book not the date the art was created or copyrighted so the reader can find the source that you used.


Social Media

Found a great image on Facebook or Twitter? Trace the image back to its original website and cite it as a web page. Using a profile picture or mobile upload? Make a note in this format: 

Grande Prairie Regional College Library photos. Facebook. Accessed October 14, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/gprclibrary/


Creative Commons instructions:

Creative commons image citations look different because they are copyrighted differently. By indicating the CC info (e.g. CC BY 2.0) the reader is able to know if the image can be shared, modified, and/or sold. For example, CC BY 2.0 means that anyone is able to share and adapt the image for personal or commercial use so long as the original author has been credited and any changes have been noted. The original author is not able to change these rights as long as these rules have been followed.

Template:

“Title of work” by Author or screen name is licensed under CC info

Example

“Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco” by tvol is licensed under CC BY 2.0. https://www.flickr.com/photos/sixteenmilesofstring/8256206923/in/set-72157632200936657

  • If posting this citation in an online format (website), create a hyperlink for the author (link to their homepage), title (link to the original work), and license (link to explanation of creative license).
  • When posting this to a printed document, add the URL (link) to the original source. See the link below for more:

Information regarding Creative Commons citing came from

“Best practices for attribution”. Creative Commons Wiki. Last modified March 4, 2014. https://wiki.creativecommons.org/wiki/Best_practices_for_attribution

"Ibid." is used in place of the author and title information when a source is cited two or more times in a row on the same page in-text. The page number will still be updated to reflect where the information can be found in the source text. 


"Ibid." Usage Example

Full Note:

Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941-1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52. 

Shortened Note:

Ward and Burns, The War, 59. 

If twice or more in a row on one page:

Ibid., 67.


**Note: If any other sources appear in between, "Ibid." cannot be used, as it essentially means "see above" and can only refer to the source cited directly above it.

Information found on page 623 of the manual. If you have any questions, talk to your instructor:

For quotes with 100 words or more, format your quotation as follows:

Create a freestanding block, separated from the paragraph with the quote starting on a new line, and indent all lines of the paragraph about .5 inches from the left margin. Do not use quotation marks, unless there is a quote within your quote. As a quote should not end a paragraph, continue the paragraph with no indentation. 

Example: 

To illustrate his point, George Orwell describes Winston’s experience: begin quote. Whatever was written on the paper, it must have some kind of political meaning. So far as he could see there were two possibilities. One, much the more likely, was that the girl was an agent of the Thought Police, just as he had feared. He did not know why the Thought Police should choose to deliver their message in such a fashion, but perhaps they had their reasons.  End quote with footnote.  Winston’s thoughts about the message from the girl and the Thought Police turned out to be unfounded once he read the girl’s message. Footnote reads: Orwell, 1984, 113.

Cite the quotation the same way you would normally cite, and make sure the font, size and spacing are consistent with the rest of your paper. 

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