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Chicago Manual of Style

Bibliography page examples

The only difference between Footnotes/Endnotes and Author-Date for the bibliography is the location of the year and the placement of brackets around it. Also notice the order of the names. The first author's name is inverted (first name last, last name first) and subsequent names are in order (first name then last name). 

Article (Template)

Footnotes/Endnotes 

Last name, First name, and First name Last name. “Title of Article.” Journal Title volume, no. issue (year): first page – last page

Author-Date 

Last name, First name, and First name, Last name. year. "Title of Article." Journal Title, volume.issue: first page - last page.


Article with DOI

Footnotes/Endnotes 

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. "Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network." American Journal of Sociology 115, no. 2 (2009): 405-50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Author-Date 
Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. "Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network." American Journal of Sociology 115, no. 2: 405-50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.


Article without DOI: Use URL

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Whitney, Frank P. “The Six – Year High School in Cleveland.” School Review 37, no. 4 (1929): 267-71. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1076243.

Author-Date 
Whitney, Frank P. 1929. "The Six-Year High School in Cleveland." School Review 37, no. 4: 267-71. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1076243.


More than 10 authors

For sources with UP TO 10 authors, list all names in the same manner as described above. 

For citations with more than 10 authors, list the first 7 authors followed by et al. 

The only difference between Footnotes/Endnotes and Author-Date for the bibliography is the location of the year. Also notice the order of the names. The first author's name is inverted (first name last, last name first) and subsequent names are in order (first name then last name). 

Book (Template)

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Last name, First name, and First name last name. Title of Book, number of edition. Place of publication: Publisher, year. 

Author-Date 
Last name, First name, and First name last name. year. Title of Book, number of edition. Place of publication: Publisher. 


Single Author

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Lerner, Fred. The Story of Libraries: From the Invention of Writing to the Computer Age, 2nd ed. New York: Continuum, 2009. 

Author-Date 
Lerner, Fred. 2009. The Story of Libraries: From the Invention of Writing to the Computer Age, 2nd ed. New York: Continuum. 


Two Authors

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Jacobs, Sue-Ellen, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang, eds. Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Author-Date 
Jacobs, Sue-Ellen, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang, eds. 1997. Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 


Four to Ten Authors

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Sechzer, Jeri A., Sheila M. Pfafflin, Florence L. Denmark, Anna Griffin, and Susan J. Blumenthal, eds. Women and Mental Health. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1996. 

Author-Date 
Sechzer, Jeri A., Sheila M. Pfafflin, Florence L. Denmark, Anna Griffin, and Susan J. Blumenthal, eds. 1996. Women and Mental Health. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.


No Author: Begin with the title

Footnotes/Endnotes 
A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced. London, 1610. 

Author-Date 
A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced. 1610. London.  


Chapter in a Book

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Ellet, Elizabeth F. L. "By Rail and Stage to Galena." In Prairie State: Impressions of Illinois, 1673-1967, by Travelers and Other Observers, edited by Paul M. Angle, 271-79. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968. 

Author-Date 
Ellet, Elizabeth F. L. "By Rail and Stage to Galena." In Prairie State: Impressions of Illinois, 1673-1967, by Travelers and Other Observers, 1968. Edited by Paul M. Angle, 271-79. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 


Electronic Books (e-books)

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass. New York, 1855. http://www.whitmanarchive.org/published/LG/1855/whole.html.

Author-Date 
Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass. 1855. New York. http://www.whitmanarchive.org/published/LG/1855/whole.html.

Website (Template)

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Author's name or Corporation name. "Title of Webpage." Title of Website, Type Out Website Abbreviations Where Necessary. Last modified, and/or accessed date, http://www.URL.com.  

Author-Date 
Author's name or Corporation name. "Title of Webpage." Date of Publication. Title of Website, Type Out Website Abbreviations Where Necessary. Accessed date, http://www.URL.com

Corporate Author on Website

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Google. "Google Privacy and Terms." Last modified March 31, 2014, accessed July 10, 2014, http://www.google.ca/policies/privacy/

Author-Date 
Google. March 31, 2014. "Google Privacy and Terms." Accessed July 10, 2014, http://www.google.ca/policies/privacy/

Document from a website

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Roberts, Alexander, and James Donaldson, eds. "ANF01. The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr and Irenaeus: Introductory Note to the Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus." CCEL, Cristian Classics Ethreal Library. Accessed April 23, 2011, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.iii.i.html. 

Author-Date ​ 
Roberts, Alexander, and James Donaldson, eds. n.d. "ANF01. The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr and Irenaeus: Introductory Note to the Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus." CCEL, Cristian Classics Ethreal Library. Accessed April 23, 2011, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.iii.i.html. 

Visual Media (Template)

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Last name, First name. Title of Work. Format. Directed/Performed by First name Last name. Original Release Year. City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year. Medium. 

Film

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Cleese, John, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin. "Commentaries." Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, special ed. DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2001. 

Author-Date 
Cleese, John, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin. 2001. "Commentaries." Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, special ed. DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment. 

T.V. Episodes

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Curtis, Michael, and Gregory S. Malin. "The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy." Friends, season 3, episode 1. Directed by Gail Mancuso, aired September 19, 1996. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video. 

Author-Date ​ 
Curtis, Michael, and Gregory S. Malin. September 19, 1996. "The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy." Friends, season 3, episode 1. Directed by Gail Mancuso. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video.

Online Multimedia

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Harwood, John. "The Pros and Cons of Biden." New York Times video, 2:00. August 23, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/video/us/politics/1194817091987/the-pros-and-cons-of-biden.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3Aw. 

Author-Date 
Harwood, John. August 23, 2008. "The Pros and Cons of Biden." New York Times video, 2:00. http://www.nytimes.com/video/us/politics/1194817091987/the-pros-and-cons-of-biden.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3Aw.

Recordings 

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Truman, Harry S. "First Speech to Congress." April 16, 1945. Transcript and Adobe Flash audio, 18:13. Miller Centre of Public Affairs: University of Virginia. http://millercenter.org/scripps/archive/speeches/detail/3339. 

Author-Date 
Truman, Harry S. April 16, 1945. "First Speech to Congress." Transcript and Adobe Flash audio, 18:13. Miller Centre of Public Affairs: University of Virginia. http://millercenter.org/scripps/archive/speeches/detail/3339. 

Entire Album

Footnotes/Endnotes 
Pink Floyd. Atom Heart Mother. Capitol CDP 7 46381 2, 1990, compact disc. Originally released in 1970. 

Author-Date 
Pink Floyd. 1990. Atom Heart Mother. Capitol CDP 7 46381 2, compact disc. Orignally released in 1970.

Magazine/Newspaper (Template): omit the URL if you are using a print copy.

Footnotes/Endnotes 

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Magazine/Newspaper Name. Published Date. http://www.URL.com. 

Author-Date 

Last name, First name. Date of Publication. "Title of Article." Magazine/Newspaper Name. http://www.URL.com

Magazine

Footnotes/Endnotes 

Frank, Michael. "La Concha Revival: San Juan's Tropical Modernist Gem Makes a Comeback." Architectural Digest. August 2009. 103-4. 

Author-Date 

Frank, Michael. August 2009. "La Concha Revival: San Juan's Tropical Modernist Gem Makes a Comeback." Architectural Digest. 103-4. 

Online article from magazine website

Footnotes/Endnotes 

Masters, Coco. "The Takeaway Diet of 2006." Time. December 17, 2006. 

http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1570794,00.html.

Author-Date 

Masters, Coco. December 17, 2006. "The Takeaway Diet of 2006." Time

http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1570794,00.html.

Newspaper (print): Add URL if found online

Footnotes/Endnotes 

Borzi, Pat. "Retirement Discussion Begins Anew for Favre." New York Times, January 25, 2010.  http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/26/sports/football/26vikings.html?emc=etal. 

Author-Date 

Borzi, Pat. January 25, 2010. "Retirement Discussion Begins Anew for Favre." New York Times.  http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/26/sports/football/26vikings.html?emc=etal. 

Instructions for citing images:

Images should be cited in a ‘caption’ below the image itself. Label it with Figure or Fig. to help when referring to the image in your paper.

Remember to cite the source you are using. If you have a book, cite the book. If you are looking at the original work, cite the original work. Do not cite the original work if you have not personally seen it.

Database template

Fig. 1. Artist first and last name, Title of work. Year of original art, Medium (e.g. Oil on canvas, drawing, sculpture, photograph, etc.), Measurements (e.g. 18.5 x 12 cm). Location of original museum, province, country. Available from: Database name, www.URL.com (accessed month day, year).

Print Resource

Figure 1. Author first and last name, Title of work. Year of original work, medium, dimensions. From: Author of book, Title of book. City: Publisher, year. Page or plate number.

Example

Database: Fig. 1. Rogier van der Weyden, Saint Catherine of Alexandria. 1430-1432, Diptych panel, 18.5 x 12 cm. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria. Available from ARTstor, http://artstor.org (accessed September 30, 2009)

Examples

Database (ARTstor)

Fig. 1. Cuthbert Brodrick, Plan of Leeds town hall. 1852-58, drawing. Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. Available from: ARTstore, http://www.artstor.org (Accessed October 14, 2015).

Website

Fig. 1. Kostyantyn Steblovskyy. Swanlike End. 2015, Digital Image. Available from: National Geographic. http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-of-the-day/swan-lake-bled/ (Accessed October 14, 2015).

Book

Fig. 1. Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Young girl and a cow at Saint-Briac. From Judy Le Paul Gaugin and the Impressionists at Pont-Aven. New York: Abbevill Press. 1987. Page 137.

Note: for books you will put the year of the book not the date the art was created or copyrighted so the reader can find the source that you used.

Social Media

Found a great image on Facebook or Twitter? Trace the image back to its original website and cite it as a web page. Using a profile picture or mobile upload? Make a note in this format:

Template:

Grande Prairie Regional College Library photos. Facebook. Accessed October 14, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/gprclibrary/

Creative Commons instructions:

Creative commons image citations look different because they are copyrighted differently. By indicating the CC info (e.g. CC BY 2.0) the reader is able to know if the image can be shared, modified, and/or sold. For example, CC BY 2.0 means that anyone is able to share and adapt the image for personal or commercial use so long as the original author has been credited and any changes have been noted. The original author is not able to change these rights as long as these rules have been followed.

Template:

“Title of work” by Author or screen name is licensed under CC info

Example

“Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco” by tvol is licensed under CC BY 2.0. https://www.flickr.com/photos/sixteenmilesofstring/8256206923/in/set-72157632200936657

  • If posting this citation in an online format (website), create a hyperlink for the author (link to their homepage), title (link to the original work), and license (link to explanation of creative license).
  • When posting this to a printed document, add the URL (link) to the original source. See the link below for more:

Information regarding Creative Commons citing came from

“Best practices for attribution”. Creative Commons Wiki. Last modified March 4, 2014. https://wiki.creativecommons.org/wiki/Best_practices_for_attribution

Both ways for citing Chicago in-text will be shown. Verify with your assignment instructions which format to follow. 

When using the Footnote/Endnote system and you are including a bibliography, use the shortened version.

Footnotes/Endnotes: 

After the punctuation and quotation marks, insert a footnote or an endnote. Your word program should automatically generate a space at the bottom of your page (footnote), or at the end of your document (endnote). Pay close attention to the punctuation and font style in the examples. 

The first time you create a footnote/endnote for a source, use the long version of it as demonstrated below. 

Fred Lerner, The Story of Libraries: From the Invention of Writing to the Computer Age, 2nd ed. (New York: Continuum, 2009), 99-100. 

The second time you use the source, you can shorten it down

Lerner, Story of Libraries, 3. 

*Notice the title has been shortened in the second (and subsequent) entries. Choose 2-3 significant words to differentiate it from other sources. 


Author-date system: Place the author's last name, date, and page number within brackets in the text. The citation is placed after the quote and before the punctuation marking the end of the sentence. Pay attention to the placement of punctuation in the example.

"your quote here" (Lerner 2009, 99-100). 

Talk to your instructor, speak to a tutor in the Learning Support Centre, or consult the Chicago Manual of Style handbook if you have any questions or need any clarification. 


Footnotes/endnotes

The first time you cite a source as a footnote follow this format: Notice the author's name is in order from first to last.

Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941-1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52. 

and then: 

Ward and Burns, War, 59. 


Author-date system

For all citations use only the author's last name, year, and page numbers in brackets in the text.

(Ward and Burns 2007, 52). 

Follow assignment instructions as to which style is preferred in your class. 


Three authors - Footnotes/Endnotes: Pay attention to the punctuation and font style. Notice that the author's names are in order from first to last and that the second (and subsequent) citations use a shortened version of the title. 

Sue-Ellen Jacobs, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang, eds., Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997), 32.

Jacobs, Thomas, and Lang, Two-Spirit People, 65. 

Three Authors - Author-date system: Follow the same rules for the in-text citation. 

(Jacobs, Thomas, and Lang 1997, 65). 

 Add / Reorder  


4-10 authors - Footnotes/Endnotes: All names are usually given in the bibliography (explained elsewhere) however, only the first author's name is given, followed by et al. Pay close attention to the punctuation and font style. 

Jeri A. Sechzer et al., eds., Women and Mental Health (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), 243.

Secher et al., Women and Mental Health, 276. 

4-10 authors - Author-date system: Follow the same rules above for the in-text citation.

(Secher et al. 1996, 276). 

 

Information found on page 623 of the manual. If you have any questions talk to your instructor

For quotes with 100 words or more, format your quotation as follows:

Create a freestanding block, separated from the paragraph with the quote starting on a new line, and indent all lines of the paragraph about .5 inches from the left margin. Do not use quotation marks, unless there is a quote within your quote. As a quote should not end a paragraph, continue the paragraph with no indentation. 

Example: 

To illustrate his point, George Orwell describes Winston’s experience: begin quote. Whatever was written on the paper, it must have some kind of political meaning. So far as he could see there were two possibilities. One, much the more likely, was that the girl was an agent of the Thought Police, just as he had feared. He did not know why the Thought Police should choose to deliver their message in such a fashion, but perhaps they had their reasons.  End quote with footnote.  Winston’s thoughts about the message from the girl and the Thought Police turned out to be unfounded once he read the girl’s message. Footnote reads: Orwell, 1984, 113.

Cite the quotation the same way you would normally cite, and make sure the font, size and spacing are consistent with the rest of your paper. 

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