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APA 6th and 7th Edition Citation Guide

Reference List Entries

Note: Most general reference citation principles are the same as APA 6th edition. The main two differences are as follows:

  • The place of publication is no longer needed for print works, and
  • The words "Retrieved from" are no longer needed prior to most links.

Structure of the Reference List

  • The reference list is arranged in alphabetical order by the last names of the first listed authors of each source.
  • Most of the formatting, including the spacing, font, size, and color of the reference list, should be consistent with the rest of the paper.
  • The list should be titled "References" (centered and bold at the top of the page)
  • The reference list must have a hanging indent (the first line of each entry is all the way to the left, then all subsequent lines of that entry are indented - see the sample reference page).

Formatting Reference List Entries

The exact formatting of APA reference list entries can vary based on what types of sources are being cited. However, the general order of information included is as follows:

1. Author(s)

2. Year/date of publication

3. Title

4. Publication information

5. Source (publisher and/or link)


The very first part in a reference entry is usually the author(s) of the source. These names are written in Last, F. M. order (where "F. M." represents the author's first and middle initials):


James Earl Jones --> Jones, J. E.


For multiple authors, use "&" prior to the final listed author. 


James Earl Jones and Mark Hamill --> Jones, J. E., & Hamill, M.


Authors can also sometimes be groups (e.g., institutions, government agencies, or organizations). Do not change the order of these names.


Usually, only the year is required for APA reference list entries. The year should be written in brackets and followed by a period:




For certain sources, like news articles or blog posts, a full date can be included in the order of Year, Month Day:


(2018, September 18).


The titles of shorter, partial works, like journal articles, news articles, or chapters, should be written in normal text with no extra formatting. Only the first word of the title, words after colons, acronyms, and proper nouns (e.g., Canada) need capital first letters.


Professional values: Results of a scoping review and preliminary Canadian survey.


The titles of longer, complete works, such as full books or full journals, should be formatted in italics.


Behind the shock machine: The untold story of the notorious Milgram psychology experiments.


The titles of full journals can keep the capital letters on all main words, whereas all other titles follow the same capitalization rules described for titles of shorter works above.


International Social Science Review


Any titles within titles should be formatted according to the rules above, but with capital letters kept on all the main words, as shown below:


Chemistry and the science of transformation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein.

Publication Information

For a journal article, this usually includes the volume number, issue number, and page range where that article is located in its journal. The volume number is in italics, and the issue number is in brackets, as shown below:


International Social Science Review, 89(1), 1-2.


For a chapter in a book, the full book information will include any editors for the book, as well as the edition number and page range where the chapter is found within the same set of brackets. Note that the names of editors are in the F.M. Last order:


In G.J. Rich, U.P. Gielen, & H. Takooshian (Eds.), Internationalizing the teaching of psychology (1st ed., pp. 161 - 179).

Location or URL (Link)

For a printed source, the reference entry will contain just the name of the publishing company:


Information Age Publishing.


For an online source, provide the most stable, permanent link possible to that source. If the source comes from an academic journal, use a doi (digital object identifier) whenever possible, formatted as a link, as shown below:


If the source does not have a doi, use the permalink instead. Unlike APA 6th edition, the words "Retrieved from" are not required prior to any links:


Links to all other types of sources follow the same formatting as the permalink:

For more information on general formatting rules for reference lists, see Chapter 9 (start at page 281) or the back inside cover of the APA 7th edition manual.

Sample reference page created by Claire Pienaar, 2019.

Journal Article Template:


Author’s last name, first initial. (Year). Title of the article: Only the first letter of the first word, any words after colons, and any proper nouns like Canada are capitalized. Title of the Journal in Italicsvolume #(Issue #), first page # – last page #.

Article with one author:


Stultz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy and analytic therapy in trauma treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(4), 482-488.


Note that the digital object identifier, or "doi," is used instead of the URL- a doi is more reliable and stable. Use the doi whenever possible, and always format it as a link, as shown above.

For articles with between two and 20 authors, list the last names and initials of all the authors, and place an ampersand (&) before the name of the final listed author:


Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48.

For an article with more than 20 authors, list the first nineteen authors and the very last one listed. Delete all other names and replace them with an ellipse (...), as shown below:


Wiskunde, B., Arslan, M., Fischer, P., Nowak, L., Van den Berg, O., Coetzee, L., Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E., Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R., Kumar, B., Xu, A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M., Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E., . . . Kovács, A. (2019). Indie pop rocks mathematics: Twenty One Pilots, Nicolas Bourbaki, and the empty set. Journal of Improbable Mathematics, 27(1), 1935–1968.

For a doctoral dissertation published by an institution, treat the text as a full, complete document and italicize the title:


Birks, D.C. (2019). Groundwater heating and cooling: An evaluation of resilience in the context of recharge and temperature (Doctoral dissertation, University of Glasgow).


Do the same for a master's thesis:


Fleet, C. (2016). Becoming a queer teacher: Perceptions of queer teacher candidates in initial teacher education programs (Master's thesis, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON).

For more information on citing journal articles, see page 316 (Section 10.1) of the APA 7th edition manual. For dissertations and theses, see page 333 (section 10.6).

Magazine/Newspaper (Template):

Author last name, First initial. (Date). Article title. Magazine/Newspaper Name, Volume(Issue), firstpage-

lastpage. URL


Perina, K. (2008, September/October). Clothes encounters. Psychology Today, 41(5), 7.

Online Magazine Article:

Masters, C. (2006, December 17). The takeaway diet of 2006. Time.,9171,1570794,00.html

Online Newspaper Article:

Swanson, A. & Bradsher, K. (2019, November 7). U.S. and China agree to roll back some tariffs. New York Times.

For more information on citing newspaper and magazine articles, see page 317 (Section 10.1, items 3, 15, 16, and 19) of the APA 7th edition manual.

Book (Template)


Author last name, first initial. (Year). Title of book. Publisher.


***Note that, unlike APA 6th edition, the place of publication does not need to be mentioned.***

Single Author


Aronsson, L. (2000). The development of sustainable tourism. Continuum.

Two Authors


Cushing, C. E., & Allan, J. D. (2001). Streams: Their ecology and life. Academic Press.

Three to Seven Authors


Hayes, S. C., Stosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K.G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy. Guilford Press.

For more than seven authors, list the first six authors and the very last one listed. Delete all other names and replace them with an ellipse (...), as shown below:


Weigl, E., Fradis, A., Kreindler, A., Metze, E., Lander, H.-J., Mihailescu, L., … Weigl, I. (2017). Neuropsychology and neurolinguistics : Selected papers. De Gruyter Mouton.

Chapter in an Edited Book


Regulus, T. A. (1995). Gang violence. In R. L. Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (19th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 1045-1055). National Association of Social Workers.



Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version].

For more information on citing books in the reference list, see page 312 (Section 10.2) of the APA 7th Edition Manual.



Spielberg, S. (Director). (1982). E.T. the extra-terrestrial [Motion Picture]. Universal Pictures.

T.V Episode:


David, L., & Seinfeld, J. (Writers). (1995). The soup Nazi [Television series episode]. Seinfeld. NBC. 

YouTube Video:


Lockergnome. (2009, Oct. 19). How to improve reading comprehension [Video]. YouTube.

Full Album:


The Beatles. (1967). Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band [LP]. Capitol Records.

Individual Song:


Singleton, C., & Snyder, E. (1966). Strangers in the Night [Song recorded by F. Sinatra]. On On My Way: The Best of Frank Sinatra. Warner.

Spoken Word Recording:


Darling, S. (Speaker). (1988). To Kill a Mockingbird [Cassette recording]. Recorded Books.

Musical Composition:


Beethoven, Ludwig van. (1932). Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Oliver Ditson.



The Nutcracker. (2006, December 2). Butler Ballet. Clowes Memorial Hall, Indianapolis.



Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast].

For more information on citing audiovisual materials, see page 341 (Section 10.12) of the APA 7th edition manual.

Online Resource (Template)


Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date of Publication). Web page title. Title of Website.

***Note that the italics here go on the title of the webpage, not of the name of the website. Think of the website name more like an editor or publisher name than a title.***


If no author is listed, begin entry with the web page sponsor or the web page title, as shown in the examples below.

***Note also that, unlike in APA 6th edition, the words "Retrieved from" are not required prior to links.***

Entire website


United Nurses of Alberta. (2009). Member resources: Professional responsibility.


***Note that if the website name and the author are the same (like in this case, where both would be the United Nurses of Alberta), the website name can be omitted from the citation.***

Wikipedia Page


Africville. (2021, January 8). In Wikipedia.


***Note: you can find the full date and permalink information for any Wikipedia page using the "Cite this page" tool on the leftmost toolbar on Wikipedia itself. However, they have a different recommended citation format; the APA 7 guidelines specify the format shown here, not the one shown on Wikipedia.***

Blog post


Crosby, B. (2019, October 2). Africa’s plastic bag ban seems to be working, and a STEM challenge idea [Blog post].

Online Forum or Discussion Group


Filmfreakspicture. (2014, July 31). The funniest internet reviewers? (movies/games) [Online forum post]. 



goodreads [@goodreads]. (2014, August 1). What is the best attribute in a sidekick: Loyalty, mischief, or strength? Join the

discussion [Tweet]. Twitter. 

Instagram Photo or Video


GPRC Alberta [@gprc_ab]. (2019, December 6). At the age of 18, Alina Ovsiy and her family moved from Ukraine to Grande Prairie [Photograph]. Instagram.

Facebook Status Update


Harper, S. (2014, July 24). Our Conservative Government is taking action to protect law-abiding gun

owners from having their firearms reclassified overnight. Sign your support 

[Status update]. Facebook.

Facebook Page


Grande Prairie Regional College. (n.d.). About. [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved December 9, 2019, from


***Note that this format and the previous one can also be used for similar updates or pages on TumblrLinkedin, Instagram, etc.***

For more information on citing web sources, see page 348 (section 10.15) of the APA 7th edition manual.

Template (with an author):

Last name, F. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of full reference work (#th ed.).

Template (without an author or date):

Dictionary Publisher. (n.d.). Title of entry. In Title of full reference work. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from

***Note that this is one of the very few exceptions where "Retrieved from" is still used in APA 7th edition reference list entries.***


Online reference work with an author:

Faller, J. E., Nordtvedt, K.L., & Cook, A.H. (2019). Gravity. In Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Online reference work with no author:

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Heuristic. In dictionary. Retrieved November 8, 2019, from

For more information on citing dictionaries and encyclopedias, see page 328 (items 47 - 49) of the APA 7th edition manual.

Lecture/PPT Slides Template

Author, F. M. (year). Title of presentation [Format]. Website name.


Bailey, K. (2019). Information literacy skills for the college setting [PowerPoint slides]. Moodle.

Note: cite class notes or information that is not recoverable (e.g., if your instructor said it to you but there is no record of it) as personal communications (see "In-Text Citations" section for more).

For more information on citing PowerPoints or lecture materials, see page 347 (item 102) of the APA 7th edition manual.

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