General template for all citations
Major changes in 8th Edition:
For example, use U for University and P for Press. The “Print or “Web” designator at the end of a citation is no longer required.
Tolson, Nancy. “Making Books Available: The Role of Early Libraries, Librarians, and Booksellers in the Promotion of African American Children’s Literature.” African American Review, vol. 32, no. 1, 1998, pp. 9-16.
Jeromack, Paul. “This Once, a David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor.” New York Times, late edition, 13 July 2002, p. B7.
***Note: B7 is the page number for the newspaper article
Goldman, Anne, “Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante.” The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, 2010, pp.69-88. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41403188.
Chan, Evans. “Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema.” Postmodern Culture, vol. 10, no. 3, May 2000. Project Muse, doi:10.1353/pmc.2000.0021
*B7 is the page number for the newspaper article
Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Levine-Scholastic, 2000.
Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich. The Crown of Columbus. HarperCollins Publishers, 1999.
Three or More Authors
Booth, Wayne, et al. The Craft of Research. 2nd ed. University of Chicago Press, 2003.
American Heritage Guide to Contemporary Usage and Style. Houghton, 2005.
Chapter in an Edited Book
Wilson, Robert F., Jr. “William Shakespeare’s Theater.” The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students, edited by Joseph Rosenblum, Greenwood, 2005, pp. 47-64.
Electronic books (e-books)
Rowley, Hazel. Franklin and Eleanor: An Extraordinary Marriage. Kindle ed., Farrar, 2010.
*** Note that page numbers for e-books can change between different formats so avoid using device-specific numbering systems. Unless stable page numbers are available, use a chapter or section number.
Template for General Reference to Film
Example: Gray, Gary, director. The Fate of the Furious. Produced by Neal Moritz, Vin Diesel, Michael Fottrell, and Chris Morgan, Universal Pictures, 2017.
T.V. Episode (Template)
"Title of Episode".Title of Series, created by Last name, First name and First name Last name, performances by First name Last name, First name Last name, season #, episode #, Distributor, Date of Release.
“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.
Entire TV Series
Gatiss, Mark and Steven Moffat, creators. Sherlock. Warner Bros. Entertainment Company, 2010.
Online Video (YouTube)
“Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Unaired Pilot 1996.” YouTube, uploaded by Brian Stowe, 28 Jan. 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WRJ-v7QXXw.
"A Study in Pink." Sherlock: A New Sleuth For the 21st Century, created by Mark Gatiss and Steven Moffat, performances by Benedict Cumberbatch and Martin Freeman, season 1 episode 1, Warner Bros. Entertainment Company, 2010, disc 1.
Netflix, Hulu or Google Play
"Out of Darkness, Into the Fire." Supernatural, season 11, episode 1, 2015. Netflix, https://www.netflix.com/watch/80120451?trackId=13752289&tctx=0%2C0%2Ce5c897f2-5329-4d38-aeff-2f69dddb2b3e-319605357 Accessed 24 May 2017
Inside Out. Directed by Pete Docter, performances by Amy Poehler, Phyllis Smith, Richard Kind, Bill Hader, and Lewis Black, 2015, Walt Disney Pictures/Pixar Animation Studios, Netflix, https://www.netflix.com/search?q=inside%20out&jbv=80030684&jbp=0&jbr=0
*** Please note the use of Date of Access. Online works can be changed or removed and including a date of access can be useful to identify which version you have watched. It is especially crucial when the date of publication/production is unknown.
Web page on a Website:
Hollmichel, Stefanie. “The Reading Brain: Differences between Digital and Print.” So Many Books, 25 Apr. 2013, somanybooksblog.com/2013/04/25/the-reading-brain-differences-between-digital-and-print/.
Tab on a Website:
Quade, Alex. “Elite Team Rescues Troops Behind Enemy Lines.” CNN.com, 19 Mar. 2007, 5:20 p.m., cnn.com/2007/WORLD/meast/03/15/search.rescue/index.html?_s=PM:WORLD
Beyoncé. "Sorry." Lemonade. Parkwood Entertainment, 2016. http://www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/?media_view=songs
Astley, Rick. Concert. 6 Oct. 2016, Town Hall, New York City.
Live Performance of a Play
Heartbreak House. By George Bernard Shaw, directed by Robin Lefevre, performances by Philip Bosco and Swoosie Kurtz, Roundabout Theatre Company, 1 Oct. 2016, American Airlines Theatre, New York.
Lennon, John. "Power To The People." Lennon Legend: The Very Best of John Lennon, EMI Group Inc., 1997.
Copeland, Stewart. "The Rhythmalist." 7 May 2016. MP3 file.
The J. Paul Getty Museum. "Elements of Art". Understanding Formal Analysis. J. Paul Getty Trust, 2011, https://www.getty.edu/education/teachers/building_lessons/elements_art.pdf
MLA uses parenthetical in-text citations in the format (Author Page). Do not include any punctuation between the author's last name and the page number. There are two ways of citing a source in-text:
Example: "Quote" (Freud 9).
Examples: Freud says, "quote" (9).
or: Sigmund Freud says, "quote" (9).
If there are two authors, use both authors' last names for every in-text reference. Use the word "and" to join the names.
Method 1: "quotation" (Broer and Holland 13)
Method 2: Broer and Holland state, "quotation" (25).
If there are three or more authors, use first author's last name + et al. Do not use any punctuation after the last name (no commas).
"Quote" (Plag et al. 44).
or, As Plag et al. explain, "quote" (64).
The same author, different works
If you reference two different works by the same author, your in-text citations will be unclear if done using either of the two methods mentioned above, as the author's name alone is not enough to distinguish which citations were pulled from which works. In this case, include a short form of the source's title after author's last name and before the page number.
For example: If our work is called "Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media," we can reference the work in text in the following manner: "The other half [of literacy] is writing" (Baron, "Redefining" 194).
The same names, different authors
If your essay references two works by different authors who have the same last name, add first initial (or full name) to in-text citations to avoid ambiguity.
Example: Work 1 = (S.A. Baron 194); Work 2 = (Naomi Baron 14)
MLA requires the use of a “block” format for quotations longer than 4 lines. For block format, the quotation marks are omitted and the text is set off by indenting the left margin as demonstrated in the following example.
At the conclusion of Lord of the Flies, Ralph, realizing the horror of his actions, is overcome by
great shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to
wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black
smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and
infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to
shake and sob too. (186)
*Note that for block style quotations, the punctuation at the end of the cited passage is placed before the in-text reference.