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Reference List Examples

Formatting the Reference page requires a 'hanging indent'. Check out the Reference tab on Formatting my Paper for more information.

Article (Template)

Author’s last name, first initial. (Year). Title of the article, only the first letter is capitalized. Title of the Journal in Italics, volume(Issue), first page – last page.

Article with DOI

Stultz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy and analytic therapy in trauma treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(4), 482-488. doi:10.1037/00002-9432.76.4.482

Article without DOI: Use accession number

Morris, R. (1996). Taking 'ME' too personally. BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition), 313(7053), 369. Accession Number: 9608270844

Article without DOI or accession number: Use permanent URL

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from

More than 7 authors

List all the authors up to 7 authors. For more than 7, list the first 6 authors and the very last one. Delete all other names and replace them with an ellipse (. . .)


Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L.C., Asgaard, G., . . . Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249-267. doi:10.1080/14622200410001676305

Formatting the Reference page requires a 'hanging indent'. Check out the Reference tab on Formatting my Paper for more information.

Book (Template)

Author last name, first initial. (Year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.

Single Author

Aronsson, L. (2000). The development of sustainable tourism. London, England: Continuum.

Two Authors

Cushing, C. E., & Allan, J. D. (2001). Streams: Their ecology and life. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Three to Seven Authors

Hayes, S. C., Stosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K.G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

No Author, No date, online version.

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from

Chapter in an Edited Book

Regulus, T. A. (1995). Gang violence. In R. L. Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (19th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 1045-1055). Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.

Electronic books (e-books)

Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version].

Formatting the Reference page requires a 'hanging indent'. Check out the Reference tab on Formatting my Paper for more information.

Online Resource (Template)

Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date of Publication). Web page title. Title of Website. Retrieved from

(if no author is listed, begin entry with the web page sponsor or the web page title).

Entire website

United Nurses of Alberta. (2009). Member resources: Professional responsibility. Retrieved from

Tab on a website

Environment Canada. (2009). Climate change science and research. Climate change. Retrieved from

Personal Communication

If you communicate with someone through private letters, private emails, telephone conversations or text, do not include them in your Reference List. Include the information IN-TEXT as follows:

T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001) states...


"quote" (T. K. Lutes, personal communication, April 18, 2001).

  • There is NO reference entry at the end of your paper for these citations. Personal communication goes in-text only. 

Most citation styles refer to BlueBook of legal citations to reference items like acts, court cases and law. The Law Library at Simon Fraser University has created a quick guide called Citing Canadian Government Documents based on APA criteria and the recommended BlueBook of Legal Citations

Click below to see the quick guide

Formatting the Reference page requires a 'hanging indent'. Check out the Reference tab on Formatting my Paper for more information.


Spielberg, S. (Director). (1982). E.T. the extra-terrestrial [Motion Picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

T.V Episode

David, L. & Seinfeld, J. (Writers). (1995). The soup Nazi [Television series episode]. Seinfeld. New York, NY: NBC. 

Online Video

Lockergnome. (2009, Oct. 19). How to improve reading comprehension [Video file]. Retrieved from  

Entire Albums

The Beatles. (1967). Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band [LP]. United States: Capitol Records.

Individual Songs

Singleton, C., & Snyder, E. (1966). Strangers in the Night [Recorded by F. Sinatra]. On My Way: The Best of Frank Sinatra [Cassette]. United States: Warner. (1996).

Spoken Word Recording

Darling, S. (Speaker). (1988). To Kill a Mockingbird [Cassette recording]. United States: Recorded Books.

Musical Composition

Beethoven, Ludwig van. (1932). Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson.


The Nutcracker. (2006, December 2). Butler Ballet. Clowes Memorial Hall, Indianapolis


Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Instructions for citing images: When placing images directly into your assignment, place the full citation immediately below the image. When you discuss the image in your text, give it a name, such as Figure 1, in addition to the full citation immediately beneath the image, and refer to it as Figure 1. If you are discussing a particular art work, you may refer to it by the artist or title, as it may be well known.   

Clip art from Microsoft Word or PowerPoint (pre-2013) does not need citations. Describe the location (for example: image was downloaded from MSWord) in the text when referring to the image.

Remember cite the source you are using. If you have a book, cite the book. If you are looking at the original work, cite the original work. Do not cite the original work if you have not personally seen it. 



Artist, A. B (Role of author). (Copyright year). Title of work [Medium: painting, drawing, sculpture, photograph, etc.]. Retrieved from

In Print

Artist, A. B (Role of author). (year of work). Title of work [Medium]. In A. Author of book, Book title (p. # of image). Place: Publisher.  


Database (ARTstor): Brodrick, C. (Artist). (1852-58). Plan of Leeds town hall [Drawing]. Retrieved from


Steblovskyy, K. (Photographer). (2015). Swanlike End [Photograph]. Retrieved from


Renoir, P. A. (1987). Young girl and a cow at Saint-Briac [Oil on canvas]. In J. Le Paul, Gaugin and the Impressionists at Pont-Aven (p. 137). New York: Abbevill Press.

*Note: for books you will put the year of the book not the date the art was created or copyrighted so the reader can find the source that you used.


Social Media

Khiza Music. (2015, March 5). [Image of a mother holding a child]. Retrieved from

Creative Commons instructions:

Creative commons image citations look different because they are copyrighted differently. By indicating the CC info (e.g. CC BY 2.0) the reader is able to know if the image can be shared, modified, and/or sold.

  • For example, CC BY 2.0 means that anyone is able to share and adapt the image for personal or commercial use so long as the original author has been credited and any changes have been noted. The original author is not able to change these rights as long as these rules have been followed.


“Title of work” by Author or screen name is licensed under CC info

Example: “Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco” by tvol is licensed under CC BY 2.0 

Information regarding Creative Commons citing came from “Best practices for attribution”. (2014). Creative Commons Wiki. Retrieved from


Formatting the Reference page requires a 'hanging indent'. Check out the Reference tab on Formatting my Paper for more information.

Magazine/Newspaper (Template):

Author last name, First initial. (Date). Article title. Magazine/Newspaper Name, Volume(Issue), firstpage-

lastpage. URL


Perina, K. (2008, September/October). Clothes encounters. Psychology Today, 41, 7.

Online article from magazine website

Masters, C. (2006, December 17). The takeaway diet of 2006. Time. Retrieved from,9171,1570794,00.html

Newspaper (print): Add Retrieved from URL if found online

Seward, Z. (2006, December 14). Colleges expand early admissions. Wall Street Journal (Eastern ed.),

pp. D1-D2. 

General Format

Author, First initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of document [Format]. Retrieved from

Note: For online forums or blogs, the author's real name may not be known. In this case use the screen name in place of the author's name. If both are known, provide the authors real name in the format above followed by the screen name in square brackets as seen in the example below:

Author, F. M. [Screen name]. (year). Title [Format]. Retrieved from URL

Online Forum or Discussion Group

Filmfreakspicture. (2014, July 31). The funniest internet reviewers? (movies/games) [Online forum post].

Retrieved from 

Twitter Update or Tweet

goodreads. (2014, August 1). What is the best attribute in a sidekick: Loyalty, mischief, or strength? Join the

discussion Retrieved from 

Facebook Status Update

Harper, Stephen. (2014, July 24). Our Conservative Government is taking action to protect law-abiding gun

owners from having their firearms reclassified overnight. Sign your support 

[Facebook status update]. Retrieved from

APA Style uses parenthetical, author-date citations. After a quote or a paraphrased sentence, add parentheses containing the author's name, the year of publication, and the page number of the work.

One author

Example: (Purcell, 1997, pp. 111-112).


Purcell (2007) states: "place quote here" (p. 111). 

Each borrowed idea (sentence) needs to be cited. Do not wait until the end of a paragraph to put in your citations. 

If two authors wrote the work, use both names for every in-text reference.

Example: (Basu & Jones, 2007, para. 4).


Basu and Jones (2007) argue "place your quote here" (para. 4). 

If a work has three to five authors, all authors must be cited in the first in-text reference.  All subsequent citations include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year and page number, if it is the first citation of the reference in subsequent paragraphs. For further explanation, please refer directly to page 208 of the 5th ed. of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Example: (Verbunt, Pernot, & Smeets, 2008, para. 1).  [first citation in text]

Example: (Verbunt et al., 2008, para. 7).  [subsequent citations]

Use the same format if you were to place the authors name before the quotation:

Example: Verbunt, Pernot, and Smeets (2008) suggest "..." (para. 7)


Example: Verbunt et al. (2008) suggest "..." (para. 1).

If a work has six or more authors, only the first author's surname is cited followed by et al. and the year and page number.  For further explanation, please refer directly to page 175 of the 6th ed. of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss et al., 2007, p. 7).


See page 171 of the APA Manual for examples and explanations. Talk to your instructor if you are unsure. 

For quotes with 40 words or more, format your quotation as follows:

Create a freestanding block, separated from the paragraph with the quote starting on a new line, and indent all lines of the paragraph about .5 inches from the left margin. Do no use quotation marks, unless there is a quote within your quote. As a quote should not end a paragraph, continue the paragraph with no indentation.

To illustrate his point, George Orwell (2008) describes Winston’s experience:

Whatever was written on the paper, it must have some kind of political meaning. So far as he could see there were two possibilities. One, much the more likely, was that the girl was an agent of the Thought Police, just as he had feared. He did not know why the Thought Police should choose to deliver their message in such a fashion, but perhaps they had their reasons. (p. 113)

Winston’s thoughts about the message from the girl and the Thought Police turned out to be unfounded once he read the girl’s message.

Cite the quotation the same way you would normally cite, and make sure the font, size and spacing are consistent with the rest of your paper. 

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