Author’s last name, first initial. (Year). Title of the article, only the first letter is capitalized. Title of the Journal in Italics, volume(Issue), first page – last page.
Article with DOI
Stultz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy and analytic therapy in trauma treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(4), 482-488. doi:10.1037/00002-9422.214.171.1242
Article without DOI: Use accession number
Morris, R. (1996). Taking 'ME' too personally. BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition), 313(7053), 369. Accession Number: 9608270844
Article without DOI or accession number: Use permanent URL
Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap
More than 7 authors
List all the authors up to 7 authors. For more than 7, list the first 6 authors and the very last one. Delete all other names and replace them with an ellipse (. . .)
Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L.C., Asgaard, G., . . . Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249-267. doi:10.1080/14622200410001676305
Author last name, first initial. (Year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Aronsson, L. (2000). The development of sustainable tourism. London, England: Continuum.
Cushing, C. E., & Allan, J. D. (2001). Streams: Their ecology and life. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Three to Seven Authors
Hayes, S. C., Stosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K.G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
No Author, No date, online version.
Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic
Chapter in an Edited Book
Regulus, T. A. (1995). Gang violence. In R. L. Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (19th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 1045-1055). Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.
Electronic books (e-books)
Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. http://dxdoi.org/10.1036/0071393722
Online Resource (Template)
Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date of Publication). Web page title. Title of Website. Retrieved from http://website.com
(if no author is listed, begin entry with the web page sponsor or the web page title).
United Nurses of Alberta. (2009). Member resources: Professional responsibility. Retrieved from http://www.una.ab.ca/memberresources/professionalresponsibility
Tab on a website
Environment Canada. (2009). Climate change science and research. Climate change. Retrieved from http://www.ec.gc.ca/sc-cs/Default.asp?lang=En&n=56010B41-1
Most citation styles refer to BlueBook of legal citations to reference items like acts, court cases and law. The Law Library at Simon Fraser University has created a quick guide called Citing Canadian Government Documents based on APA criteria and the recommended BlueBook of Legal Citations.
Click below to see the quick guide
Spielberg, S. (Director). (1982). E.T. the extra-terrestrial [Motion Picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.
David, L. & Seinfeld, J. (Writers). (1995). The soup Nazi [Television series episode]. Seinfeld. New York, NY: NBC.
Lockergnome. (2009, Oct. 19). How to improve reading comprehension [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aK2JscwKkHA
The Beatles. (1967). Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band [LP]. United States: Capitol Records.
Singleton, C., & Snyder, E. (1966). Strangers in the Night [Recorded by F. Sinatra]. On My Way: The Best of Frank Sinatra [Cassette]. United States: Warner. (1996).
Spoken Word Recording
Darling, S. (Speaker). (1988). To Kill a Mockingbird [Cassette recording]. United States: Recorded Books.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. (1932). Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson.
The Nutcracker. (2006, December 2). Butler Ballet. Clowes Memorial Hall, Indianapolis
Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/
Instructions for citing images: When placing images directly into your assignment, place the full citation immediately below the image. When you discuss the image in your text, give it a name, such as Figure 1, in addition to the full citation immediately beneath the image, and refer to it as Figure 1. If you are discussing a particular art work, you may refer to it by the artist or title, as it may be well known.
Clip art from Microsoft Word or PowerPoint (pre-2013) does not need citations. Describe the location (for example: image was downloaded from MSWord) in the text when referring to the image.
Remember cite the source you are using. If you have a book, cite the book. If you are looking at the original work, cite the original work. Do not cite the original work if you have not personally seen it.
Artist, A. B (Role of author). (Copyright year). Title of work [Medium: painting, drawing, sculpture, photograph, etc.]. Retrieved from www.URL.com
Artist, A. B (Role of author). (year of work). Title of work [Medium]. In A. Author of book, Book title (p. # of image). Place: Publisher.
Database (ARTstor): Brodrick, C. (Artist). (1852-58). Plan of Leeds town hall [Drawing]. Retrieved from http://library.artstor.org/library/secure/ViewImages?id=4jEkdDAtJTczRkY6fjZ1R3lDN3gseV5ydw%3D%3D&userId=hzBHczU%3D&zoomparams=
Steblovskyy, K. (Photographer). (2015). Swanlike End [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-of-the-day/swan-lake-bled/
Renoir, P. A. (1987). Young girl and a cow at Saint-Briac [Oil on canvas]. In J. Le Paul, Gaugin and the Impressionists at Pont-Aven (p. 137). New York: Abbevill Press.
*Note: for books you will put the year of the book not the date the art was created or copyrighted so the reader can find the source that you used.
Khiza Music. (2015, March 5). [Image of a mother holding a child]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/khizamusicfans/photos/a.10152082836223442.1073741
Creative Commons instructions:
Creative commons image citations look different because they are copyrighted differently. By indicating the CC info (e.g. CC BY 2.0) the reader is able to know if the image can be shared, modified, and/or sold.
“Title of work” by Author or screen name is licensed under CC info
Example: “Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco” by tvol is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Information regarding Creative Commons citing came from “Best practices for attribution”. (2014). Creative Commons Wiki. Retrieved from https://wiki.creativecommons.org/wiki/Best_practices_for_attribution)
Author last name, First initial. (Date). Article title. Magazine/Newspaper Name, Volume(Issue), firstpage-
Perina, K. (2008, September/October). Clothes encounters. Psychology Today, 41, 7.
Online article from magazine website
Masters, C. (2006, December 17). The takeaway diet of 2006. Time. Retrieved from
Newspaper (print): Add Retrieved from URL if found online
Seward, Z. (2006, December 14). Colleges expand early admissions. Wall Street Journal (Eastern ed.),
Author, First initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of document [Format]. Retrieved from www.URL.com
Note: For online forums or blogs, the author's real name may not be known. In this case use the screen name in place of the author's name. If both are known, provide the authors real name in the format above followed by the screen name in square brackets as seen in the example below:
Author, F. M. [Screen name]. (year). Title [Format]. Retrieved from URL
Online Forum or Discussion Group
Filmfreakspicture. (2014, July 31). The funniest internet reviewers? (movies/games) [Online forum post].
Retrieved from http://www.imdb.com/board/bd0000001/thread/232859999
Twitter Update or Tweet
goodreads. (2014, August 1). What is the best attribute in a sidekick: Loyalty, mischief, or strength? Join the
discussion ow.ly/ztcTE. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/goodreads/status/495198612650229761
Facebook Status Update
Harper, Stephen. (2014, July 24). Our Conservative Government is taking action to protect law-abiding gun
owners from having their firearms reclassified overnight. Sign your support http://cpcp.cc/6rsqq
[Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/pmharper
APA Style uses parenthetical, author-date citations. After a quote or a paraphrased sentence, add parentheses containing the author's name, the year of publication, and the page number of the work.
Example: (Purcell, 1997, pp. 111-112).
Purcell (2007) states: "place quote here" (p. 111).
Each borrowed idea (sentence) needs to be cited. Do not wait until the end of a paragraph to put in your citations.
If two authors wrote the work, use both names for every in-text reference.
Example: (Basu & Jones, 2007, para. 4).
Basu and Jones (2007) argue "place your quote here" (para. 4).
If a work has three to five authors, all authors must be cited in the first in-text reference. All subsequent citations include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year and page number, if it is the first citation of the reference in subsequent paragraphs. For further explanation, please refer directly to page 208 of the 5th ed. of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Example: (Verbunt, Pernot, & Smeets, 2008, para. 1). [first citation in text]
Example: (Verbunt et al., 2008, para. 7). [subsequent citations]
Use the same format if you were to place the authors name before the quotation:
Example: Verbunt, Pernot, and Smeets (2008) suggest "..." (para. 7)
Example: Verbunt et al. (2008) suggest "..." (para. 1).
If a work has six or more authors, only the first author's surname is cited followed by et al. and the year and page number. For further explanation, please refer directly to page 175 of the 6th ed. of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss et al., 2007, p. 7).
For quotes with 40 words or more, format your quotation as follows:
Create a freestanding block, separated from the paragraph with the quote starting on a new line, and indent all lines of the paragraph about .5 inches from the left margin. Do no use quotation marks, unless there is a quote within your quote. As a quote should not end a paragraph, continue the paragraph with no indentation.
To illustrate his point, George Orwell (2008) describes Winston’s experience:
Whatever was written on the paper, it must have some kind of political meaning. So far as he could see there were two possibilities. One, much the more likely, was that the girl was an agent of the Thought Police, just as he had feared. He did not know why the Thought Police should choose to deliver their message in such a fashion, but perhaps they had their reasons. (p. 113)
Winston’s thoughts about the message from the girl and the Thought Police turned out to be unfounded once he read the girl’s message.
Cite the quotation the same way you would normally cite, and make sure the font, size and spacing are consistent with the rest of your paper.