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Chicago Manual of Style

Chicago Author-Date Style

The Author-Date style was developed primarily for use in the "physical, natural, and social sciences, and is recommended by Chicago for works in those areas" (Chicago Manual of Style 2017, 893). It has two major differences compared to the Notes and Bibliography Style:

  • The use of bracketed in-text citations instead of footnotes/endnotes 
  • The earlier placement of the year in reference list 

The latter change is because the subject areas mentioned above generally place greater importance on the recentness of a source compared to other subjects in the humanities.

Like the Notes and Bibliography style, the reference list (commonly titled "References" or "Works Cited" in Author-Date style) is included at the end of the paper, lists all sources cited in the paper in alphabetical order, and contains more publication details than the in-text citations.

The following tabs on this page present examples, templates, and brief explanations for the proper use of Author-Date style. More detailed information about the use of the Author-Date style can be found:

In-Text Citations in Author-Date Style

Place the author's last name, date, and page number within brackets in the text. The citation is placed after the quote or paraphrased material and before the punctuation marking the end of the sentence. Pay attention to the placement of punctuation in the following examples.


One author:

"your quote here" (Lerner 2009, 99). 


Two authors: place "and" between the two authors' names.

Your paraphrased sentence here (Ward and Burns 2007, 52-54). 

*note: to cite a page range, include a dash between the start page and end page as shown above.


Three authors: place "and" before the final listed author's name.

(Jacobs, Thomas, and Lang 1997, 65, 69). 

*note: to cite nonconsecutive pages in a single citation, separate the page numbers with a comma as shown above.


Four to ten authors: include the name of the first listed author followed by "et al." starting from the very first time the source is cited.

(Secher et al. 1996, 276). 


For more details, consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, Section 15 ("Author-Date References").

The only difference between Notes and Bibliography and Author-Date with regard to bibliography entries is the placement and formatting of the year - Author-Date places the year immediately after the authors' names and does not put brackets around it. Note also that the first author's name in any bibliography entry is inverted (Last name, First name Middle name) and subsequent names are not inverted (First, Middle, then Last name) as shown in the examples below.


Article Citation Template

Last name, First name M., and First name M. Last name. Year. "Title of Article." Journal Title, volume.issue: first page - last page.


Article with DOI

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. "Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network." American Journal of Sociology 115, no. 2: 405-50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.


Article without DOI: Use URL

Whitney, Frank P. 1929. "The Six-Year High School in Cleveland." School Review 37, no. 4: 267-71. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1076243.


Three to ten authors: List all of the authors' names.

Fulcher, Karyn, Meriah Drabkin, Jennifer Gibson, Jenny Francoeur, Abbey Eurchuk, Maria Weaver, Bobbi Turner, and Nathan J. Lachowsky. 2021. "Contraceptive decision-making and priorities: What happens before patients see a healthcare provider." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 30, no. 1: 56-64. muse.jhu.edu/article/791387.


More than ten authors: List the first seven authors followed by "et al."

Anand, Sonia S., Sylvia Abonyi, Laura Arbour, Jeff Brook, Sharon Bruce, Heather Castleden, Dipika Desai et al. 2018. "Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds: First Nations Cohort Study Rationale and Design." Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action 12, no. 1: 55-64. doi:10.1353/cpr.2018.0006.


For more details, consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, ​Section 15 ("Author-Date References").

The only difference between Notes and Bibliography and Author-Date with regard to bibliography entries is the placement and formatting of the year - Author-Date places the year immediately after the authors' names and does not put brackets around it. Note also that the first author's name in any bibliography entry is inverted (Last name, First name Middle name) and subsequent names are not inverted (First, Middle, then Last name) as shown in the examples below.


Book Citation Template:

Last name, First name, and First name last name. year. Title of Book, number of edition. Place of publication: Publisher. 


One Author

Lerner, Fred. 2009. The Story of Libraries: From the Invention of Writing to the Computer Age, 2nd ed. New York: Continuum. 


Two Authors

Jacobs, Sue-Ellen, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang, eds. 1997. Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 


Four to Ten Authors

Sechzer, Jeri A., Sheila M. Pfafflin, Florence L. Denmark, Anna Griffin, and Susan J. Blumenthal, eds. 1996. Women and Mental Health. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.


No Author: Begin with the title

A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced. 1610. London.  


Chapter in a Book

Ellet, Elizabeth F. L. "By Rail and Stage to Galena." In Prairie State: Impressions of Illinois, 1673-1967, by Travelers and Other Observers, 1968. Edited by Paul M. Angle, 271-79. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 


Ebook

Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass. 1855. New York. http://www.whitmanarchive.org/published/LG/1855/whole.html.


For more details, consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, ​Section 15 ("Author-Date References").

The only difference between Notes and Bibliography and Author-Date with regard to bibliography entries is the placement and formatting of the year - Author-Date places the year immediately after the authors' names and does not put brackets around it. Note also that the first author's name in any bibliography entry is inverted (Last name, First name Middle name) and subsequent names are not inverted (First, Middle, then Last name) as shown in the examples below.


Website Citation Template:

Author's name or Corporation name. "Title of Webpage." Date of Publication. Title of Website, Type Out Website Abbreviations Where Necessary. Accessed date, http://www.URL.com


Corporate Author on Website
Google. March 31, 2014. "Google Privacy and Terms." Accessed July 10, 2014, http://www.google.ca/policies/privacy/


Document from a website

Roberts, Alexander, and James Donaldson, eds. n.d. "ANF01. The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr and Irenaeus: Introductory Note to the Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus." CCEL, Cristian ClassicsEthreal Library. Accessed April 23, 2011, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.iii.i.html. 


For more details, consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, ​Section 15 ("Author-Date References").

The only difference between Notes and Bibliography and Author-Date with regard to bibliography entries is the placement and formatting of the date - Author-Date places the date immediately after the authors' names and does not put brackets around it. Note also that the first author's name in any bibliography entry is inverted (Last name, First name Middle name) and subsequent names are not inverted (First, Middle, then Last name) as shown in the examples below.


Visual Media Citation Examples:

Film

Cleese, John, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin. 2001. "Commentaries." Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, special ed. DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment. 


T.V. Episode

Curtis, Michael, and Gregory S. Malin. September 19, 1996. "The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy." Friends, season 3, episode 1. Directed by Gail Mancuso. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video.


Online Multimedia

Harwood, John. August 23, 2008. "The Pros and Cons of Biden." New York Times video, 2:00. http://www.nytimes.com/video/us/politics/1194817091987/the-pros-and-cons-of-biden.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3Aw.


For more details, consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, ​Section 15 ("Author-Date References").

The only difference between Notes and Bibliography and Author-Date with regard to bibliography entries is the placement and formatting of the date - Author-Date places the date immediately after the authors' names and does not put brackets around it. Note also that the first author's name in any bibliography entry is inverted (Last name, First name Middle name) and subsequent names are not inverted (First, Middle, then Last name) as shown in the examples below.


Recording

Truman, Harry S. April 16, 1945. "First Speech to Congress." Transcript and Adobe Flash audio, 18:13. Miller Centre of Public Affairs: University of Virginia. http://millercenter.org/scripps/archive/speeches/detail/3339. 


Entire Album
Pink Floyd. 1990. Atom Heart Mother. Capitol CDP 7 46381 2, compact disc. Originally released in 1970.


For more details, consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, ​Section 15 ("Author-Date References").

The only difference between Notes and Bibliography and Author-Date with regard to bibliography entries is the placement and formatting of the date - Author-Date places the date immediately after the authors' names and does not put brackets around it. Note also that the first author's name in any bibliography entry is inverted (Last name, First name Middle name) and subsequent names are not inverted (First, Middle, then Last name) as shown in the examples below.


Magazine/Newspaper Citation Template (note: omit the URL if you are referencing a print copy):

Last name, First name. Date of Publication. "Title of Article." Magazine/Newspaper Name. http://www.URL.com

Examples:

Magazine

Frank, Michael. August 2009. "La Concha Revival: San Juan's Tropical Modernist Gem Makes a Comeback." Architectural Digest. 103-4. 


Online article from magazine website

Masters, Coco. December 17, 2006. "The Takeaway Diet of 2006." Time

http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1570794,00.html.


Newspaper

Borzi, Pat. January 25, 2010. "Retirement Discussion Begins Anew for Favre." New York Times.  http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/26/sports/football/26vikings.html?emc=etal. 


For more details, consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, ​Section 15 ("Author-Date References").

Instructions for citing images:

Images should be cited in a caption below the image itself. Label it with Figure # or Fig. # so you can clearly refer back to it in the main text of the paper (e.g. "As shown in Figure 4,...")

Remember to cite the source you are using to view the image. If you saw it in a book, cite the book. If you are looking at the original work, cite the original work. 


Image retrieved from a database:

Fig. 1. Artist first and last name, Title of work. Year of original art, Medium (e.g. Oil on canvas, drawing, sculpture, photograph, etc.), Measurements (e.g. 18.5 x 12 cm). Location of original museum, province, country. Available from: Database name, www.URL.com (accessed month day, year).

Example:

Database: Fig. 1. Rogier van der Weyden, Saint Catherine of Alexandria. 1430-1432, Diptych panel, 18.5 x 12 cm. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria. Available from ARTstor, http://artstor.org (accessed September 30, 2009)


Image in a print resource:

Figure 1. Author first and last name, Title of work. Year of original work, medium, dimensions. From: Author of book, Title of book. City: Publisher, year. Page or plate number.

Example:

Fig. 1. Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Young girl and a cow at Saint-Briac. From Judy Le Paul Gaugin and the Impressionists at Pont-Aven. New York: Abbevill Press. 1987. Page 137.

Note: for books, use the year the book was published so the reader can find the source that you used. Do not put the year the original image was created.

Additional Examples

Website:

Fig. 1. Kostyantyn Steblovskyy. Swanlike End. 2015, Digital Image. Available from: National Geographic. http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-of-the-day/swan-lake-bled/ (Accessed October 14, 2015).

Social Media:

Found a great image on Facebook or Twitter? Trace the image back to its original website and cite it as a web page. Using a profile picture or mobile upload? Make a note in this format:


Creative Commons instructions:

Creative commons image citations look different because they are copyrighted differently. By indicating the CC info (e.g. CC BY 2.0) the reader is able to know if the image can be shared, modified, and/or sold. For example, CC BY 2.0 means that anyone is able to share and adapt the image for personal or commercial use so long as the original author has been credited and any changes have been noted. The original author is not able to change these rights as long as these rules have been followed.

Template:

Title of work by Author or screen name is licensed under CC info

Example:

Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco; by tvol is licensed under CC BY 2.0. https://www.flickr.com/photos/sixteenmilesofstring/8256206923/in/set-72157632200936657

  • If posting this citation in an online format (website), create a hyperlink for the author (link to their homepage), title (link to the original work), and license (link to explanation of creative license).
  • When posting this to a printed document, add the URL (link) to the original source. See the link below for more:

Information regarding Creative Commons citing came from the following source:

"Best practices for attribution”. Creative Commons Wiki. Last modified March 4, 2014. https://wiki.creativecommons.org/wiki/Best_practices_for_attribution

Information found on page 905 of the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition. If you have any further questions, talk to your instructor.

For quotes with 100 words or more, format your quotation as follows:

Create a freestanding block, separated from the paragraph with the quote starting on a new line, and indent all lines of the paragraph about 0.5 inches from the left margin. Do not use quotation marks, unless there is a quote within your quote. Unless the paragraph ends following the quote, continue the paragraph with no indentation. 

The in-text citation for a block quote in the Author-Date style is placed after the final punctuation of the quote, not before it as with other quoted/paraphrased material. The information in the citation remains the same, as shown in the example below:



Note that, although many Chicago papers use single-spaced block quotations, page 69 of the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition states that "Prose extracts should have the same line spacing as the surrounding text." Check with your instructor to be sure about spacing requirements on assignments.

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